There are several types of research work which are used in social sciences. Below are the different types of research work:
These types of research work are generally based on positivist/pot-positivist paradigm. The research is associated with the collection and conversion of data into different numerical forms in order to make statistical calculations and draw conclusions from them. Usually hypotheses are tested for these types of research work. Research questions are presented in order to analyze the link between the different variables that are investigated. Finding answers to the questions requires the researcher to use various materials and instruments such as observation check list, computer or paper tests. The data used for the study is usually collected via different methods and then prepared and analyzed for the study. These days, the data is analyzed using computer packages in order to enable the researcher analyze the data effectively and on time.
The main idea behind these types of research work is to deduct reasoning usually from the generous idea to a specific idea. This form of research work is sometimes known as a top-down approach. The conclusions made largely depend on the validity of some premises. These types of research work were dominant during the Aristotle and Socrates era where an idea or statement is deducted from the general to specific. But these days a lot of studies on quantitative reasoning involve some sort of inductive reasoning in addition to the quantitative reasoning at some point in the research.
It will be daunting for researchers to have complete real life information about the members of the group they are studying. This is why sometimes they rely on previous data or conclusions from previous studies to make their own inference and draw conclusions. This is why in studies of this nature, a fraction of the population is used as a representative sample of the entire population to aid in data presentation and analysis.
The qualitative type of research tries to correlate, record, analyze, and attempt to expose the true meaning of human experience and behavior, including emotions, behaviors, and beliefs.
Researchers in these types of research work do not use pre-determined hypothesis for their study. But they try to identify a topic or problem that they are trying to explore and look for theoretical frameworks that can guide them through the study.
Participatory/Advocacy/participatory research work
Researchers involved in these types of research work always have the need to provide reprise for groups that are vulnerable or marginalized. In their own way, they try to instill positive change in those that are the subject of the research. Sometimes they may have political motives by conducting a research that will give a fraction of the people a voice. This research type is relatively new and is frequently seen in politics. Their research is always aimed at providing reforms either directly or indirectly. This is why it is very necessary to get the study groups involved from the beginning of the research process to the final stages in order to avoid marginalizing them.